australian citizenship

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Australian nationality law determines who is and who is not an Australian citizen.
The legal status of Australian nationality or Australian citizenship was created by the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 (in 1973 renamed the Australian Citizenship Act 1948), which came into force on 26 January 1949. Australian nationality and citizenship existed prior to this date but were not legal concepts: Australian nationality or citizenship meant identification with the Australian community and participation in its politics. The 1948 Act was amended many times, notably in 1973, 1984, 1986 and 2002. It was replaced by the Australian Citizenship Act 2007, which commenced on 1 July 2007.
On 13 December 1973, Australia acceded to the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness and to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.Australian citizenship law is administered by the Department of Home Affairs which can issue certificates of citizenship on naturalisation or on request provide other proof or evidence of Australian citizenship. Australian passports are issued to Australian citizens by the Australian Passport Office of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.In Australia, the terms "nationality" and "citizenship" can be used interchangeably, but the term "citizenship" (or "citizen") is more commonly used, while "nationality" is most often used in official documents and forms. In general, a person may acquire citizenship automatically ("by operation of law") through birth in Australia or through Australian descent, or by application after a period of residence in Australia. The process of acquiring citizenship by application is referred to as "naturalisation".

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