Australia's #1 for Law
Join 150,000 Australians every month. Ask a question, respond to a question and better understand the law today!
FREE - Join Now
The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in concentration camps in the western interior of the country of about 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific Coast. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. These actions were ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.Of 127,000 Japanese Americans living in the continental United States at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast. About 80,000 were Nisei (literal translation: "second generation"; American-born Japanese with U.S. citizenship) and Sansei ("third generation"; the children of Nisei). The rest were Issei ("first generation") immigrants born in Japan who were ineligible for U.S. citizenship under U.S. law.Japanese Americans were incarcerated based on local population concentrations and regional politics. More than 112,000 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were forced into interior camps. However, in Hawaii, where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans composed over one-third of the population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were also interned. The internment is considered to have resulted more from racism than from any security risk posed by Japanese Americans. California defined anyone with 1/16th or more Japanese lineage as sufficient to be interned. Colonel Karl Bendetsen, the architect behind the program, went so far as saying anyone with "one drop of Japanese blood" qualified.Roosevelt authorized Executive Order 9066, issued on February 19, 1942, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded." Although the executive order did not mention Japanese Americans, this authority was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were required to leave Alaska and the military exclusion zones from all of California and parts of Oregon, Washington, and Arizona, except for those in government camps. Internment was not limited to those of Japanese ancestry, but included a relatively smaller number—though still totalling well over ten thousand—of people of German and Italian ancestry and Germans deported from Latin America to the U.S. Approximately 5,000 Japanese Americans relocated outside the exclusion zone before March 1942, while some 5,500 community leaders had been arrested immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack and thus were already in custody.The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by spying and providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese Americans. The Bureau denied its role for decades despite scholarly evidence to the contrary, and its role became more widely acknowledged by 2007. In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the removal by ruling against Fred Korematsu's appeal for violating an exclusion order. The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, avoiding the issue of the incarceration of U.S. citizens without due process.In 1980, under mounting pressure from the Japanese American Citizens League and redress organizations, President Jimmy Carter opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into concentration camps had been justified by the government. He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) to investigate the camps. The Commission's report, titled Personal Justice Denied, found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism. It recommended that the government pay reparations to the internees. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government and authorized a payment of $20,000 (equivalent to $43,000 in 2019) to each camp survivor. The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." The U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion (equivalent to $3,460,000,000 in 2019) in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been interned and their heirs.

View More On
  1. M

    Relocation 70km away

    Hi everyone, I want to move to the country 70km away from my ex with my 2 kids. To give context when me and my ex seperated he wouldn’t leave the family home, told me to leave with the kids and find my own place. I couldn’t afford anything in the town we were in and I had friends in the...
  2. M

    VIC Can I put Contravention of orders, urgent Recovery orders and non-urgent Relocation orders in one application?

    Hi , 3 years ago, me and my ex got a final parenting order by consent, in which it says 1, our child is to be enrolled in school A, without prejudice for either parent to seek orders for alternative school choices. And 2, before the child turns 9, he lives with me for 6 nights per fortnight...
  3. OptionalSettings

    Preparing to Stop Relocation

    My ex has told me they want to move interstate, Sydney to Brisbane with the kids. I currently have the kids 6 nights a fortnight since we separated 4 years ago. Kids are 7 and 9. We have a written parenting plan but it is just agreed between the two of us so not legally binding. There is no...
  4. G


    question final orders for child 3yo mother relocates 4 hours away without permission with new boyfriend and pregnancy applied for contravention as withholding but through application and hearings identifies moved .. expected outcome for interim hearing has taken 12 months to this poit
  5. C

    QLD Relocation

    If my ex partner is doing up his own consent order to give me sole custody (he is abandoning our children giving me full time and all parental responsibility), does this mean I’m still bound to keep within an accessible distance of living? Or am I free to move as I see fit?
  6. S

    VIC Question on International Relocation - no parental orders in place

    Let me provide all details before the main question: We live in VIC Got separated in 2016 and finalised divorced in 2018 Daughter is now 10yrs old New registered domestic partner in 2018 (and I am married again in 2019). We were renting in VIC and now bought a house in VIC ex-husband always had...
  7. C

    NSW International relocation

    I am on a bridging visa A, currently awaiting a decision for our partnership visa application. Our relationship has broken up and we will need to cancel that visa application soon and then I will have 28 days before I am forced to leave the country. I am an American born citizen and my daughter...