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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.
Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi). A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power and has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.

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  1. M

    VIC Child passport when father isn’t Australian citizen

    Hi. I am trying to obtain a passport for my daughter. We have a history of family violence and our intervention order expired one month ago after 2 years. I was unable to renew the intervention order as the court said since he hasn’t done anything wrong ( not hit us ) for a while they won’t...
  2. M

    NSW Australian and International Law

    AUSTRALIAN LAW Describe briefly the differences (and any similarities) between Australian law and international law by reference to at least three of the following: • actors regulated; • sources and hierarchies of law; • enforcement mechanisms; or • constitution of courts and influence of...
  3. L

    Australian dual national can not return to Australia without an Australian Passport .

    A) Must Australian citizens, who are dual nationals, use an Australian passport to exit/enter Australia? If so, I would like to know what law and Article it is. B) Isn't it enough to present a valid Foreign Passport AND the Australian Citizenship Certificate? Everywhere I see this "Australians...
  4. K

    Shares percentage for foreigners. (non Australian residents )

    Hi, I am from Pakistan, few years ago one of my Australian client offered me business partnership, he was my client, and i was giving him web development services. He worked with me few months as partner then he suggested me lets start new company name to get more business and the name I will...
  5. G

    VIC Units

    Hi, starting my associate in Law, wondering what is a good text book or a good start to the unit Australian Legal system? Thanks in advance
  6. O

    SA Australian supply & minimum pricing

    Do we have legislation requiring all resources/products produced in Australia to be supplied firstly to the Australian market at the minimum price sold elsewhere?
  7. D

    NSW Debt Collection letter from an Australian Agency collecting an Italian traffic fine

    Hi. Today i received a letter from an Australian Debt Collection Agency asking me to pay $672 for a traffic offence 9 months ago in Italy. The letter states that their client has tried several times to contact us to pay the fine. This is the first we have heard of it, but it is possible they...
  8. P

    How to renounce Australian Permanent Residency?

    My Australian PR was approved in 2012 and I am left Australia in 2014. This PR no longer allows me to travel to Australia. I don't have any tie with Australia and I'm NOT seeking a Resident Return Visa. Instead I'm only trying to visit Australia for tourism. My question is: may I apply for a...
  9. SeanG

    Australian Wife - Divorce Settlement

    Hi, I am a non-Australian citizen, married to an Australian citizen. We met and married overseas. My wife has quite a lot of wealth/assets - a lot more than I do - all of which were covered in a prenuptial agreement. We have been together 4 years and we have 2 kids, aged 1 and 3. My wife...
  10. sehongkim

    Explain two ways in which international treaties are incorporated into Australian Law.

    please teach me