constitution

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A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are encompassed in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. Some constitutions (such as that of the United Kingdom) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties.Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign countries to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any country in the world, with 146,385 words in its English-language version, while the Constitution of Monaco is the shortest written constitution with 3,814 words. The Constitution of San Marino is the world's oldest active written constitution, having been established in 1600, while the Constitution of the United States is the oldest active codified constitution. Only half of all sovereign state constitutions around the world have functioned continuously for more than 19 years.

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    NSW Quarantine fee to be paid by traveler... Unconstitutional?

    With NSW, QLD and NT charging travelers returning from overseas (including Australian citizens), I have been reading bits and pieces on the internet stating that charging an Australian the quarantine fee on returning from overseas is in breach of the constitution. Is it ?
  2. E

    NSW A constitutional query

    1. What is the relevant Commonwealth of Australia Act compelling any "man" to pay income tax. 2. Does the Australian Taxation Office, and therefore the Australian Government (as opposed to the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia), consider payment of taxes by a man to be a right of said...
  3. B

    NSW Selective High School Legal Multiple Choice Question

    1. Australia’s involvement in the International Force for East Timor was: a) Authorised under The Timor Sea Treaty 2002 b) Made possible by use of the ‘external affairs’ power c) A requirement of membership of the United Nations d) A demonstration of Australia’s...
  4. R

    VIC Religious Schools & FCCA orders

    Hello, can i get comment from anyone in the legal fraternity regarding the following... Parent 1 wishes the children to go a particular secondary school. That school is a church/religion based school, the terms and conditions of enrolment in that school include the following; "Enrolment in the...
  5. wsDK_II

    VIC Australian Law on Photography in Public Areas?

    Hello, I'm hoping there are some here who can help me out. In the USA, they have the 1st amendment to their constitution which explicitly allows public photography within publicly accessible areas of public buildings, and in public of anything that can be seen from public. Australia has no...
  6. D

    NSW Constitution - Use of Shortened Name on Legal Documents?

    Hi there, I have a situation whereby a Unit Trust Deed (for which the trustee is a company) was signed by the directors of the trustee company. One of the directors was listed using a shortened name (e.g Ben instead of Benjamin, Mick instead of Michael). The director isn't one of the unit...
  7. phoebs

    VIC Changing to Constitution of NFP Incorporated Associations?

    Hello folks, I wonder if anyone with experience in Incorporated Associations could clarify for me who we would write to in order to lift an “executive order” in the context of the checklist item below (from the JusticeConnect NFP Checklist: Meeting new rules requirements for incorporated...
  8. K

    SA Prior Convictions Inadmissible in Criminal Trial?

    Where in the Constitution does it state that prior convictions are inadmissible in a criminal trial?
  9. C

    NSW Forced to Have Her Baby Undergo a DNA Testing?

    My daughter has a child to a mistake. She wants nothing to do with him. He has a history of promiscuity, has one child who is 4 years old, and one 7 months old to my daughter, and another due in one month to a girl he refuses to have anything to do with and whose baby he declares he wants...
  10. D

    VIC Correct Terms Used in Constitution of NFP Incorporated Association?

    In the NFP incorporated association (hobby club) that I belong to, both in the constitution and in the by-laws the management committee is referred to as "the committee", but the current committee call themselves "the executive" or "the executive committee". Are decisions and motions that are...