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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is severe enough to affect daily functioning. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, difficulties with language, and a decrease in motivation. Consciousness is usually not affected. A diagnosis of dementia requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. These diseases have a significant effect on caregivers.The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes up 50% to 70% of cases. Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), dementia with Lewy bodies (15%), and frontotemporal dementia. Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease dementia, syphilis, HIV, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. More than one type of dementia may exist in the same person. A small proportion of cases run in families. In the DSM-5, dementia was reclassified as a neurocognitive disorder, with degrees of severity. Diagnosis is usually based on history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood tests used to rule out other possible causes. The mini mental state examination is one commonly used cognitive test. Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. Screening the general population for the disorder is not recommended.There is no known cure for dementia. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil are often used and may be beneficial in mild to moderate disorder. Overall benefit, however, may be minor. There are many measures that can improve the quality of life of people with dementia and their caregivers. Cognitive and behavioral interventions may be appropriate. Educating and providing emotional support to the caregiver is important. Exercise programs may be beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and potentially improve outcomes. Treatment of behavioral problems with antipsychotics is common but not usually recommended, due to the limited benefit and the side effects, including an increased risk of death.Globally, dementia affected about 46 million people in 2015. About 10% of people develop the disorder at some point in their lives. It becomes more common with age. About 3% of people between the ages of 65–74 have dementia, 19% between 75 and 84, and nearly half of those over 85 years of age. In 2013 dementia resulted in about 1.7 million deaths, up from 0.8 million in 1990. As more people are living longer, dementia is becoming more common. For people of a specific age, however, it may be becoming less frequent, at least in the developed world, due to a decrease in risk factors. It is one of the most common causes of disability among the old. It is believed to result in economic costs of US$604 billion a year. People with dementia are often physically or chemically restrained to a greater degree than necessary, raising issues of human rights. Social stigma against those affected is common.

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  1. B

    VIC My mother has dementia and I wanted to know if I can still organise an Enduring Power of Attorney , does her Doctor need to help me out on this ?

    My mother has dementia and I wanted to know if I can still organise an Enduring Power of Attorney , does her Doctor need to help me out on this ?
  2. S

    QLD Will question with Dementai involved

    Hi, I'm asking for a friend, my friend's husband made a will 2014 which left everything to his wife. Six months prior (June 2019) to his death (death was Jan 2020) he changed the will without the wife's (carer) knowledge. He has stated in the current will that the martial home of over 20...
  3. M

    VIC Dad has dementia and stepmum selling his/their house

    Hello. I hope I am posting this in the right place. My dad has dementia and he has been placed into a permanent care facility by my step mum (just in the last week). She is now selling his/their family home and just wondering what sort of rights would I or my sister's have in this situation?
  4. Ian Curtis

    NSW Does Financial Abuse Get Factored into Execution of Will?

    If my sibling sabotaged our inheritance, does that get taken into account when executing a will, which was made to be 50% each? I say "sabotaged" because the sibling is complicit with the public trustee's financial abuse. The background... Government Trustee took over financial management for...
  5. K

    NSW Family Home Purchase Denied by Power of Attorney - Claim Compensation?

    My grandfather was diagnosed with dementia. My mother and my aunty were made his power of attorney with my mother the enduring guardian. Another family member, living in my grandfather with dementia's home, utterly destroyed the home. It was soiled and damaged. I was asked by my mother to go...
  6. M

    VIC Opinions on Contest a Will?

    My elderly mother has recently passed away. My father died years ago and an older sibling, who lived with them, became my mother's carer, as she had dementia...although died from cancer. Both my mother and father had the same will originally, leaving the deceased estate to each other, and if /...
  7. xeraphax

    VIC Can Enduring Power of Attorney be Revoked?

    Can a power of attorney that was decided 10 years ago be revoked at the request of the principal once he has been assessed and shown to have severe dementia, Alzheimer's and has been judged to not have the capacity to make decisions or look after himself? They are also showing confirmed signs of...
  8. L

    VIC Co-Executor of Will has Dementia - Help?

    Hi, There are 2 questions for anyone with information: 1: My father passed away 2 weeks ago and we have found out that my dad's partner (of 20+ years) and my brother are both co-executors of dad's will. My dad's partner is now in her early eighties and has Alzheimer's disease with terrible...
  9. A

    NSW Issues with Transfer Of Property - What to Do?

    I apologise for how long this piece is, but it is all factual. (I have changed the property values to not make the situation as obvious to anyone with a vested interest). In our case, my wife’s Grandfather 20 years ago left his property solely on his will to my wife's mother who looked after...
  10. R

    VIC Mother Assaulted by Uncle but Police Won't Press Charges?

    Hi all, I've signed up to this forum because I've just found out some heartbreaking and frustrating news, and would like to know what options there still may be. Around 6 weeks ago, my mother was assaulted quite badly by my uncle (her brother). He has threatened me with physical violence twice...