borderline personality disorder

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Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a mental illness characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable relationships, distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions. Those affected often engage in self-harm and other dangerous behavior. They may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness, fear of abandonment, and detachment from reality. Symptoms of BPD may be triggered by events considered normal to others. The behavior in BPD typically begins by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations. Substance abuse, depression, and eating disorders are commonly associated with BPD. Approximately 10% of people affected with the disorder die by suicide. The disorder is often stigmatized in both the media and the psychiatric field.The causes of BPD are unclear but seem to involve genetic, neurological, environmental, and social factors. It occurs about five times more often in a person who has an affected close relative. Adverse life events appear to also play a role. The underlying mechanism appears to involve the frontolimbic network of neurons. BPD is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as a personality disorder, along with nine other such disorders. The condition must be differentiated from an identity problem or substance use disorders, among other possibilities.BPD is typically treated with therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). DBT may reduce the risk of suicide in the disorder. Therapy for BPD can occur one-on-one or in a group. While medications cannot cure BPD, they may be used to help with the associated symptoms. Some of those affected with the disorder require hospital care.About 1.6% of people have BPD in a given year, with some estimates as high as 6%. Women are diagnosed about three times as often as men. The disorder appears to become less common among older people. Up to half of those with BPD improve over a ten-year period. Those affected typically use a high amount of healthcare resources. There is an ongoing debate about the naming of the disorder, especially the suitability of the word borderline.

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