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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.
Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi). A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power and has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.

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  1. igdav

    Working outside of Australia while awaiting for AU citizenship.

    Can I work outside of Australia but for an Australian company, and pay taxes to the AU government, while I'm waiting for my citizenship application to be approved? I'm a holder of a 186 visa. Will this harm my citizenship application?
  2. polishjew101

    rules of statutory interpretation in Australia

    To what extent if any is it legitimately possible to assert that the rules of statutory interpretation in Australia have become simply arbitrary, with a court deciding the outcomes of cases based on what it subjectively wants to do, selectively choosing from among the rules to support its prior...
  3. Trevero

    VIC We want to give up on our permanent residency and leave Australia

    We have been refused travelling back to our home country France,and want to leave for good...How can we no longer be Residents ?!
  4. N

    VIC AAT Hearing for Propestive Marrige Refusal While Outside Australia?

    I just received an invitation for a hearing. I am currently outside Australia and won't be in Australia on the date of the hearing. I have been given a hearing by phone. Will I still be able to attend the hearing by phone while I am outside Australia?
  5. D

    VIC ivo matter and children

    September last year I was issued with an extended 3 year IVO. The magistrate based her decision on probability as opposed to any facts or evidence. I wanted a contested hearing but was talked out of it by my solicitor. The Ex stated in court that there had been multiple breeches and...
  6. C

    Proving citizenship of someone else ?

    Hi, My father is an australian citizen and I was born abroad. I would like to obtain australian citizenship, but I’m not in contact with my father anymore. It seems that his citizenship certificate is mandatory for the application ? Can I obtain a certificate proving his citizenship myself ? Can...
  7. J

    VIC How to check if there is DPO imposed on me?

    I got divorced with ex three years ago in China and have been living in China to take care of my parents since then. Three months after she came back to Australia, she said she wanted to discuss with me about property and child support again in Australia but I refused. Then she disappeared and...
  8. P

    VIC filipina girl imported for sex trade and no way to report anonymously

    Perhaps someone can advise: A filipina girl entered Australia today to be with a guy who clearly is involved in trafficking. She is desperate to get out of Philippines and has formed several relationships with foreign men from a variety of countries at the same time, always asking them for...